Inspired by the Mahatma Gandhi's non-violent, non-cooperation movement of 1920-'21, he actively participated in India's struggle for independence. He was arrested and brought before the magistrate. Then he gave his name as 'Azad', father's name as 'Swatantra' and residence as 'prison'.
One of his remarkable contributions is the founding of Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA) in association with Bhagat Singh.
Azad was on the wanted list of the police. On 27 February 1931, in Alfred Park (now Chandra Shekhar Azad Park) of Allahabad, the police circled Azad, as a result of the betrayal of one of his close associates. When realized the impasse, Azad shot himself.