Rajah Serfoji II (1798-1832) was the illustrious ruler of the erstwhile kingdom of Thanjavur. He was the adopted son of Tulaji Raja, the former ruler of the kingdom.
Rajah Serfoji II was a scholar himself and patronized many scholars. He was a connoisseur and collector of painting. Some of his collections are preserved in the
Thanjavur Maharaja Serfoji's Saraswati Mahal Library Museum. The library also throws light on the contribution made by the king towards medicine and healthcare.
Rajah Serfoji II had a mentor and a father figure in Friedrich Schwartz (1750-1798), an apostle to South India. The Schwartz Church in Thanjavur was built by Serfoji as mark of respect towards the revered figure. He built the Manora fort to celebrate the victory of the British over Napoleon Bonaparte at Waterloo.