The new state of Jharkhand, formerly a part of Bihar, was formed in the year 2000 with Ranchi as its capital. The history of the state dates back to even before the period of Magadh Empire. During the Mughal period, Jharkhand was known as Kukara. After 1765 the area came to be known as Jharkhand. It is bordered by Bihar in the north, Madhya Pradesh in the west, Orissa in the south and West Bengal in the east. Main languages spoken are Hindi, Urdu, Bangla and Oriya. Santhali, Ho, Mundari, Kuduk, Nagpuri, Sadri and Karmali dialects are also spoken. Elephant is the official state animal and cuckoo is the state bird.
Jharkhand is one of the most industrialized regions in India. It has two of the biggest steel plants in the country - one at Bokaro in the public sector and the other, Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO), at Jamshedpur in the private sector. The state is abundantly rich in minerals such as copper, coal, iron, manganese, mica, chromite and bauxite.