The Saiyid Dynasty (1414-1451) was founded by Khizar Khan who claimed to be a descendent of the Prophet of Islam, Hadrat Muhammad. When
, the mongol chief, invaded India, Khizar assisted him on his conquest. In return, Khizar was made the governor of Lahore, Multan and Dipalpur (now in Pakistan). In 1412, following the death of Mahmud Shah, the last ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty, Daullat Khan Lodhi (an afghan ruler) and Khizar fought over the throne of Delhi
. Khizar won the battle and established the rule of the Saiyid dynasty in Delhi in 1414.
Khizar Khan ruled under the lordship of Timur and Timurís successor. Khizar failed to control the disintegration of the
Delhi Sultanate. Gradually the Sultanate was reduced to Sindh, Western Punjab and Western Uttar Pradesh. After the death of Khizar in 1421, his son Mubarik Shah succeeded him. Unlike his father, Mubarik did not accept the overlordship of Timurís successors. He declared himself the Sultan of Delhi. He had to face several internal and external revolts. The reign of his successors was also marked with political instability. The empire stretched just ten miles from Delhi to
Palam. The Saiyid dynasty ended with the capture of Delhi by Buhlul Lodhi in 1451.