India | Kerala


Karimanal (black sand) is mineral beach sand deposited in the south-western coast of Kerala. This sand extends from Alappuzha to Neendakara in Kollam District. The sand enriched with minerals has a high quantity of ilmenite, the basic raw material in titanium dioxide production. Radioactive materials such as thorium and monazite are present in the sand.

Updated on 14th March, 2015


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