The Indian Ocean, the third largest ocean in the world, lies between Africa, the Southern Ocean, Asia, and Australia. It is calculated to be 68.556 million sq km wide and has a coastline of 66,526 km.
The Indian Ocean's sea routes connect the Middle East, Africa, and East Asia with Europe and the America. Major Indian ports and harbors include Chennai, Kolkata and Mumbai.
Oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits and polymetallic nodules are the Indian Ocean's natural resources.