Goalpara District is situated along the Brahmaputra
, on a bend where the river takes its southerly course from Assam
to Bengal. It was a frontier outpost of the Mohammedan power, and has long been a flourishing seat of river trade.
Goalpara covers an area of 1,824 sq km, and supports a population of about 0.8 million. The topography is characterized by an almost flat plain except for a few low-forested hills that break the monotony of the terrain. The climate is moderate during winter and hot in summer. Eighty percent of the rainfall is from south-west monsoon (average annual rainfall is 1,614 mm).
Goalpara town is situated on the south bank of the Brahmaputra and can be reached by roads from either side. Pancharatna, Sri Surjya, Tukreswari, Nalanga and Paglartek are among the prominent hills. The main tributaries are the rivers Dudhnoi, Krishnai, Jinjiram and Jinary.
Goalpara District has several artificial ponds, and a number of beels (natural reserve forests) such as
Urpad Beel, Hashila Beel, and
Kumri Beel. Pir Majhar, Nandeswar Devalaya, Narashingha Mandir, Paglartek Mandir, and Tukreswari Pahar are the main tourist destinations. A remarkable feature is the existence of a large number of 'chars' (riverine tracts and sandy river islands) on the Brahmaputra.