The Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526) was established by Buhlul Lodhi. This dynasty was the only Afghan dynasty to rule over the
Delhi Sultanate, with the exception of Sher Shah Suri.
Buhlul Lodhi was previously the governor of Sarhind (in Punjab), under the overlordship of the Sultan of Delhi Alauddin Alam, of the Saiyid Dynasty (1414-1451). Taking advantage of weak position of the Saiyid dynasty, Buhlul Lodhi first occupied the province of Punjab and later on, captured Delhi. He became the Sultan of Delhi on April 19, 1451 under the title of Sultan Abul Muzzaffar Buhlul Shah Ghazi. During his reign, though there were numerous attempts at destabilising the empire, Buhlul managed to retain the rule of the Lodhis. He also captured a number of nearby states that had become independent during the previous regimes.
After Buhlulís death in July 1489, his son Nizam Khan succeeded him, under the title Sikandar Shah. Sikandar turned out to be the most capable ruler of the Lodhi Dynasty. He established a fair system of administration. He founded the historical city of Agra.
After Sikandar's death, the fight for succession that broke out among his sons, resulted in the decline of rule of the Lodhi dynasty. Ibrahim Lodhi, son of Sikander, was the last Sultan of the Lodhi Dynasty. Zahiruddin
Babur, the Mughal ruler from Central Asia, attacked India and defeated Ibrahim in the first battle of Panipat on April 21 1526. The defeat of Ibrahim ended the Lodhi Dynasty and marked the beginning of Mughal rule in India.